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保温砂浆和保温板类保温材料的系统应用

时间:2016-01-01     作者:华东公司【原创】   阅读

节约能源和保护环境是当前全球关注的焦点。作为节能的重要领域之一,我国每年20亿平方米新建建筑和400亿平方米既有建筑的节能,已成为国家实施能源节约战略的重要环节,而外墙外保温是实现建筑节能环节中的一个最重要的组成部分。所以,无论是新建建筑还是既有建筑,选用何种外墙外保温材料实现节能显得尤为重要。

To save energy and protect the environment is the current focus of global attention. As energy saving, one of the important fields in our country every year 2 billion square meters of new buildings and 2 billion square meters of existing buildings and energy saving, has become an important part of the country to carry out the strategy of energy conservation, and exterior insulation is the implementation of building energy efficiency part of one of the most important. So, both in new buildings and existing buildings, choose what kind of exterior insulation materials to achieve energy saving is particularly important.

  目前,市场上推广应用的外墙外保温材料种类繁多,主要有聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统、聚苯板薄抹灰外墙外保温系统和挤塑聚苯板外墙外保温系统等。10多 年来,聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统以其保温隔热效果好、干密度低、黏结强度高、适应性强、防裂抗渗性能优越、施工简便等特点一直称雄市场,为建筑节能和消除白色 污染作出了巨大贡献。尤其是近年来国家强制执行建筑节能标准,保温市场不断扩大,各种新型保温材料层出不穷,原本适用于严寒地区和寒冷地区的聚苯板薄抹灰 外墙外保温系统和挤塑聚苯板外墙外保温系统,在夏热冬冷地区相关部门的大力推动下,同样得以广。聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统、聚苯板薄抹灰外墙外保温系统、挤塑聚苯板外墙外保温系统各自的利弊如何?在江河纵横、湖泊密布、高温炎热、雨水偏多、湿度偏大且涉及我国西南地区东部和长江中下游地区16个省、自治区、直辖市的夏热冬冷地区,在这种特定的气候条件下,究竟更适合选用哪种保温系统,值得分析和研究。

At present, the application of external thermal insulation materials on the market a wide range of main system of insulation mortar, polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation systems and extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system, etc. More than 10 years, polystyrene particles insulation mortar system with its good thermal insulation effect, low dry density, high compressive strength, strong adaptability, easy arrange-designing permeability superior performance, construction etc. Have been dominating the market, for building energy efficiency and eliminate white pollution have made great contribution. Especially in recent years, countries enforce building energy efficiency standards, the growing market of insulation, all kinds of new type thermal insulation material emerge in endlessly, was suitable for cold area and cold area of polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation systems and extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system, relevant departments in hot summer and cold winter region, under the push of the same to widely. System of insulation mortar, polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation system, extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system, the pros and cons of each? In rivers, lakes densely, heat, rain, humidity is big, and the more involved in the east and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river in southwest China in 16 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government in the hot summer and cold winter region, in this particular climate conditions, what is more suitable for choice of insulation system, worth analysis and research.

  

既要减少能源消耗又要保护环境是建筑节能的出发点和落脚点保温板材系统(包括聚苯板薄抹灰外墙外保温系统和挤塑聚苯板外墙外保温系统)的主要材料是聚苯板或挤塑聚苯板(在此以聚苯板为例)。其中聚苯板源于纯苯、乙烯、苯乙烯等高分子化工材料,原料来自原油。曾经有专家计算,每生产1吨聚苯板材需要消耗2吨原油,也就是说保温板类外墙外保温系统每平方米使用标准重量为20公斤/立方米的板材,如果板厚40mm,在不计损耗的情况下,1250平方米保温板材将消耗2吨原油,全国每年新建建筑20亿平方米,至少要消耗128万吨原油。在实现节能的同时仍然大量耗能,显然与建筑节能的初衷背道而驰。更为严重的是,每年因此新增用于各类建筑的3200万立方米聚苯板材,将会成为新的白色污染源。这样的现实值得市场各方的重视。

To reduce energy consumption and to protect the environment is the starting point and the foothold of building energy saving, thermal insulation plate system (including polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation systems and extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system) is the main material of polystyrene board or extruded polystyrene board (in the eps board, for example). Including polystyrene from pure polymer chemical material such as benzene, ethylene, styrene, raw material comes from crude oil. Have experts calculate that every production 1 ton polystyrene board takes 2 tons of crude oil, that is to say, insulation board exterior insulation system using the standard weight of every square metre is 20 kg/m3 sheet, if the thickness of 40 mm, in the case of any loss, heat preservation plate will consume 2 tons of crude oil of 1250 square meters, the annual new buildings of 2 billion square meters, at least 1.28 million tons of crude oil. In the realization of energy saving at the same time is still a lot of energy dissipation, apparently with the intention of building energy efficiency. More seriously, so the New Year 32 million cubic meters of polyphenyl plate for all kinds of buildings, will become the new white pollution. The reality is worth the attention of the market parties.

   

聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统的主要原料是聚苯颗粒、粉煤灰。其中粉煤灰是循环利用电厂废弃物,符合国家资源综合利用政策;聚苯颗粒由商品包装物或陈旧保鲜箱等废弃聚苯材料经粉碎后的再利用,完全是社会终端的能源节约。据不完全统计,仅江苏省每年生产聚苯颗粒保温砂浆利用废弃聚苯材料的量超过10万吨、粉煤灰超过30万吨,实现资源综合利用的效果十分明显。

Polystyrene particles insulation system is the main raw material of polystyrene particles of mortar, fly ash. Of fly ash is a waste recycling plant, in line with the national resources comprehensive utilization policy; Polystyrene particles by commodity packaging or old preservation box, reuse of waste polystyrene material after crushing, completely is terminal energy saving society. According to incomplete statistics, only produced every year in jiangsu province by using waste polystyrene material of insulation mortar volume of more than 100000 tons, more than 300000 tons of fly ash, achieve the effect of comprehensive utilization of resources is very clear.

  

通过对资源的利用对比,保温板材系统和聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统一个是在实现节能的同时仍然还需要消耗大量的原油,一个是实现综合利用资源,利废环保。真正的节能不言而喻。

Through the comparison of resource utilization, thermal insulation plate system and the system of insulation mortar one is to achieve energy saving at the same time, still need to consume large amounts of crude oil, one is to realize the comprehensive utilization of resources, recycling and environmental protection. The real energy saving is self-evident.

  

建筑保温系统的防火安全问题事关全局

Building insulation system of fire safety is a matter of global problem

 

建筑节能的总趋势是使用保温隔热性能好、防火安全性强的保温材料。保温板材属于有机保温材料,最大的缺点是防火性差。从防火安全角度考虑,耐燃性是检验节能产品的重要指标,如果节能产品不耐燃,或者耐燃程度不够,就等于给建筑物穿上了易燃的外衣,埋下极大的安全隐患。保温板材本身是可燃性材料,一旦发生火灾,温度超过保温板材75℃着火点时,保温板材系统反而会加剧火势,极易引燃周边建筑群,造成更大的火灾。近年来,因保温板材着火引发的火灾事故比比皆是。尤其对高层甚至是超高层建筑物来说,一旦着火面临的危险将束手无策。因此,高层建筑在设计时应从安全角度选择合理的外墙外保温系统材料。

Total trend of building energy conservation is the use of heat preservation and heat insulation performance is good, strong fire safety of thermal insulation material. Insulation board belongs to the organic heat preservation material, the biggest drawback is the difference in fire retardancy. Think in terms of fire safety, flame resistance is the important index for testing energy-saving products, if you don't fire resistant energy-saving products, or fire resistant degree is insufficient, is to put on the cloak of flammable buildings, buried under the great potential safety hazard. Heat preservation plate itself is flammable materials, in the event of fire, temperature more than 75 ℃ heat preservation plate of ignition, heat preservation plate system will aggravate the fire, ignites the surrounding buildings, cause more fires. In recent years, because of the heat preservation plate burning caused by fire accident. Especially for high-rise even super-tall building, once the fire danger will be baffled. Therefore, high-rise building from safety point of view in the design of choosing reasonable heat preservation system of outer wall material.

   

聚苯颗粒保温砂浆是以硅酸盐等无机胶凝材料、外加剂和具有一定粒径、级配的聚苯颗粒在工厂复合而成。虽然系统中含有易燃的聚苯颗粒材料,但是聚苯颗粒材料全部被无机胶凝材料包裹着,相对保温板材系统来说,其难燃性更具有优势。从目前市场上反馈的信息表明,采用有机和无机复合的保温系统材料是建筑墙体保温市场的发展趋势。

Polystyrene particles insulation mortar is silicate inorganic gelled material, additive and with a range of particle size and distribution of polystyrene particles compounded in the factory. Although system contains flammable material of polystyrene particles, but polystyrene particle materials are all inorganic gelled material wrapped in, relative insulation board system, its flame retardant has more advantages. From the current market feedback information shows that the organic and inorganic composite thermal insulation system is the development trend of building wall thermal insulation market.

  

有缝做法和空腔问题难以杜绝渗漏和抵御负风压保温板材系统的施工一般多采用点框法铺贴板材,按照规范要求板材与墙体的粘贴面积不小于40%,这样容易使板材与基层墙体之间留有不连续的空气层,即空腔。另外,保温板材铺贴采取的都是有缝拼接,即使面层采取防渗措施,也难以杜绝渗漏问题发生,常年 累月的雨水渗漏同样会扩大空腔面积。特别是在沿海地区海风不断,当保温板材系统受负风压较大时,空腔内与外表面的压力差必然提高,从而向外产生一个较大的推力,保温板材系统与基层墙体之间连接的安全性就成为严重问题。对高层建筑使用保温板材系统更应该考虑系统能否抗风压,特别是抵抗负风压的作用。建筑物越高,受风力影响越大,负风压作用也越明显,极易刮落保温板材。一般风压产生推力,负风压产生吸力,两种风压对建筑外墙保温层均会造成极大的破坏,因此要求保温材料应具备一定的抗风压能力。以抗负风压为例,要求系统的保温层无空腔,尽可能杜绝空气层,从而避免负风压状态下保温层内的空气层出现体积膨胀造成建筑物尤其是高层建筑保温层遭到破坏。由于保温板材是有机材料,与其黏结的内外面都是无机材料,两者黏结力大小将成为确保系统安全性的一个重要指标。诸多建筑物外墙外保温层出现空鼓、脱落甚至是大面积脱落,与发泡的保温板材有直接关系,低强度油性发泡材料的承重能力以及抗冲击力都较差,很难黏结牢固。除此之外,对于保温板材系统外饰面砖的高层建筑,面砖黏结层必须能经受住多年风雨侵蚀、温度变化,必须始终保持黏结牢固,否则即使个别面砖掉落,后果将不堪设 想。

Slit practices and cavity problem is difficult to prevent leakage and to resist the negative wind pressure heater plate system construction method commonly used more box floor plate, plate and wall body according to requirements of the specification of paste area of not less than 40%, so easy to make with discontinuous air layer between each plate and base wall cavity. In addition, the heat preservation plate brick are seam joining together, even if the surface seepage control measures, and hard to eliminate leakage problems, perennial water leakage tired month will also expand the cavity area. Sea breeze continuously, especially in the coastal areas when the heat preservation plate system affected by negative wind pressure is bigger, inside the cavity and the outer pressure will increase, thus to produce a large thrust, heat preservation plate connection between the system and the basic wall security becomes a serious problem. The use of high-rise building insulation board system more should consider whether resistance to wind pressure, in particular, the role of negative wind pressure resistance. The higher the building, affected by the wind, the greater the negative wind pressure, the more obvious, also easy to scrape away heat preservation plate. Negative suction wind pressure, average wind pressure to produce thrust, two kinds of wind pressure of building external wall thermal insulation layer will cause great damage, so the heat preservation material should have a certain ability to resist wind. Negative wind pressure resistance, for example, requirement for the thermal insulation layer of the cavity, as far as possible to eliminate air layer, so as to avoid the negative wind pressure conditions in the thermal insulation layer of air layer in volume expansion caused damage to buildings especially in high-rise building insulation layer. Due to the heat preservation plate is organic material, and its bonding is inorganic material in the outside, the bonding force will become an important index to ensure the system security. Many building external wall thermal insulation layer appears empty drum, fall off or even fall off large area, and foaming is directly related to the heat preservation plate, low intensity of oily foaming material of bearing capacity and rigidity are poor, it is difficult to stick firmly. In addition, for the heat preservation plate system face brick of high-rise building, brick bond layer must be able to endure years of wind and rain erosion, temperature change, must always keep bond is strong, even if the individual brick drops, set to go to.

  

相比之下,采用聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统的保温系统,由于聚苯颗粒保温砂浆同基层的黏结基本是全封闭,不存在黏结空隙,被称为无空腔保温系统,不会受到负风压的影响,在高层和超高层建筑中应用安全性要高很多。目前该类系统在国内的很多地区占有较大的市场份额。

Using polystyrene particles insulation mortar system, by contrast, insulation system, as a result of the polystyrene particles insulation mortar and the grass-roots cohere basic is fully enclosed, there is no bond space, referred to as no cavity insulation system, not affected by the negative wind pressure, applied in the tall and super-tall building security is much higher。 At present the system occupy the bigger market share in many parts of the domestic。

  

行政监管是严格执行建筑节能标准的关键

Administrative supervision is the key to strictly implement building energy efficiency standards

   

值得重视的是,对于市场上大量采用的聚苯颗粒保温砂浆,由于有些技术研发能力差的保温砂浆企业在原料选择、生产工艺、质量控制等环节不具有优势,在实际的工程应用过程中采取非正规渠道蒙混过关,以质次价低抢占市场,形成恶性竞争,造成市场混乱,影响了人们对保温砂浆的认识。从近年来市场的应用情况看,目前市场上聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统产品存在上述问题的症结在于,部分聚苯颗粒保温砂浆厂的配方多是从北方采暖地区购买的(在我国,墙体保温应用最先开始在北方地区,后逐步向南方地区推进,各类保温系统产品也是如此),对于南方潮湿天气的适应性研究不够,产品的配方也存在不合适的地方。在购买或者引进聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统技术配方后,必须有针对性地进行相应的试验研究。在此方面,各级行政管理部门应当对此加以重视,加强行政监管,严格执行建筑节能标准。无论采用 哪类保温系统材料,都应该如此。

, attention should be paid for the use of polystyrene particles insulation mortar on the market, due to some technical research and development ability of poor thermal insulation mortar enterprises in raw material selection, production process, quality control, do not have advantage, in the process of practical engineering application to informal channels muddle through, to seize market with inferior quality low price, vicious competition, market confusion, affects the people to the understanding of the thermal insulation mortar. Look from the application of the market in recent years, the system of insulation mortar products on the market at present the main reasons for the above problems, some of the polystyrene particles insulation mortar plant formula from the purchase of the heating of the north (in our country, the wall heat preservation application first began in the north, after gradually advance to the southern region, all kinds of insulation system products), to the south of wet weather adaptability research is not enough, the product of the formula is not the right place. In the buying or the introduction of system of insulation mortar technology formula, after must be targeted to the corresponding experimental study. In this regard, the administrative departments at all levels should attach importance to this, strengthen the administrative supervision, strict enforcement of building energy saving standards. No matter use which kinds of materials, heat preservation system should be so.

  

建筑节能是功在当代利在千秋的大事业,节能市场应该遵循节约能源、保护环境的宗旨。在我国全面实施建筑节能务必要根据不同地区不同气候条件,因地制宜地解决建筑节能存在的问题,在新材料技术尚未成熟的条件下,对于夏热冬冷地区完全使用聚苯颗粒保温砂浆系统可以满足标准要求的,应该积极鼓励使用,不要“一刀切”强制使用保温板材系统或者其他类保温系统。不管采用哪类保温系统,关键要做到严格执行标准和规范,切实加强行政监管,坚决杜绝假冒伪劣产品进入建筑节能市场。

Building energy conservation is GongZaiDangDai cabinet's big enterprise, and energy saving market should follow the principle of energy saving, environmental protection。 In our country, the full implementation of building energy conservation must according to different regional climate condition, adjust measures to local conditions to solve the problems of building energy efficiency, under the condition of new materials technology is not yet mature, in hot summer and cold winter region using polystyrene particles insulation mortar system can completely meet the standard requirements, should actively encourage the use of, do not use heat preservation plate "one size fits all" mandatory system or other class insulation system。 No matter use which kinds of thermal insulation system, the key to do strictly enforce standards and norms, strengthen the administrative supervision, resolutely put an end to fake and shoddy products to enter the building energy efficiency market。


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